Quinnat Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Quinnat Salmon - Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Name: Quinnat Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
Family: Salmonidae (Salmonids), subfamily: Salmoninae
Order: Salmoniformes (salmons)
Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
Alternative Name: Chinook salmon
Max size: 150 cm TL (male/unsexed; Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 61.4 kg (Ref. 27547); max. reported age: 9 years
Environment: Benthopelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 250 m
Climate: Polar; 0 - 25°C; 72°N - 37°N
Importance: Fisheries: highly commercial; Aquaculture: commercial; Gamefish: yes; Aquarium: public aquariums
Resilience: Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=4; tmax=9; Fec=4,000)
Distribution: Arctic and Pacific: drainages from Point Hope, Alaska to Ventura River, California, USA; occasionally strays south to San Diego in California, USA. Also in Honshu, Japan (Ref. 6793), Sea of Japan (Ref. 1998), Bering Sea (Ref. 2850) and Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 1998). Found in Coppermine River in the Arctic. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Diagnosis: Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-14; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 13-19; Vertebrae: 67-75. Distinguished by the small black spots on the back and on the upper and lower lobes of the caudal fin, and the black gums of the lower jaw (Ref. 27547). Body fusiform, streamlined, noticeably laterally compressed in large adults, somewhat deeper than other species (Ref. 6885). Gill rakers wide-spaced and rough; pelvic fins with axillary process (Ref. 27547). Fish in the sea are dark greenish to blue black on top of head and back, silvery to white on the lower sides and belly; numerous small, dark spots along back and upper sides and on both lobes of caudal; gum line of lower jaw black (Ref. 27547). In fresh water, with the approach of the breeding condition, the fish change to olive brown, red or purplish, the color change being more marked in males than in females (Ref. 27547).
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